Barton Educational Consulting


Major Aspects of the Reading Process


Phonemic Awareness

Vowel Sounds

Consonant Sounds




Fluency--the amount of words read per minute with accuracy

Fluency is measured during oral reading and during silent reading.  It is possible to have two different rates for the two types of fluency.  While fluency is important, students do not win a prize for being the first one done after reading a text if they don't ALSO COMPREHEND the text.  Fluency is usually measured in terms of correct words per minute (cwpm) which takes into account both the rate of reading and the accuracy with regard to decoding.

How to Build a Child's Fluency

Fluency is affected by a variety of factors.  For example, students who have difficulty with decoding may not read as quickly as others.  By learning as many sight words as possible (words that have been memorized by sight and thus are quickly pronounced) helps to build fluency.  Developing a "fund" of sight words is also known as "automaticity".  Another way to build fluency is to have the child read aloud passages that are easier for him/her to decode (in other words a few grade levels/lexile levelsbelow his/her reading ability).

Sight Words

The two most popular list of sight words are the "Dolch" list and Fry's list.  


The best way to develop your vocabulary is to read! read! read!  Memorizing definitions of words does not work well over the long term.  A good technique for studying vocabulary is to create flashcards with the term on the front and the definition along with a picture on the back of the card.  The picture helps the student remember. 

Comprehension-- General Kinds of Comprehension Questions

1.  Literal --(answers are found directly in the piece of text)

2.  Explicit--another term for literal

3.   Inferential-- (a higher level of comprehension that involves making inferences based on information provided in the text).

4.  Implicit--another term for inferential

Types of Comprehension include:

Main Idea

Cause and Effect


Comprehension Strategies:




writing in the book/on the text

using different colored pens and highlighters

sticky notes

starring or using a check mark to note important info

using of graphic organizers to organize the information in the text

writing a 1-3 sentence summary of the chapter and placing the summary at the beginning of the chapter

"Every mind deserves a great future."