504 Plan a.k.a. Accommodation Plan--Section 504 does not require a public school to provide an IEP. Instead a 504 plan with the necessary accommodations and modifications is created to help the child. Ex. A blind student will need materials in Braille.
Accommodation--An accommodation allows a student to complete the same assignment/test and to complete the same content as other students. An accommodation does not change or alter in any significant way the test or content.
Accuracy--A component of reading fluency which indicates how “correct” a student is in terms of phonetics, miscues, word insertions, word deletions, etc. when reading aloud.
Achievement (Academic)--A student’s level of academic performance when measured against the general curriculum
Administrator--a person who manages/works at any level in education support the overall mission and vision of the educational organization.
Advanced Placement (AP) refers to a type of course for high school students where a student could earn high school credit after passing a comprehensive end-of-course exam (AP exam).
Advocacy--a process by which an individual promotes the growth and development of special education students by supporting parents and the student throughout the special education process. Advocates are not mandated by Pennsylvania Department of Education or the US Dept. of Education to possess a certain training prior to assuming the role of an advocate. Other agencies have attempted to formalize the process of becoming an advocate.
AIMSWEB--A tool used to monitor student progress toward IEP goals.
Allergies occur when a person's immune system reacts to an "invader"--dust, pollen, nuts, etc.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)--The ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of public life, including jobs, schools, transportation, and all public and private places that are open to the general public.
Antecedents--The events or “triggers” that cause or contribute to certain behaviors.
Anxiety--anxiety is a future- oriented mood state associated with preparation for possible, perceived or actual upcoming negative events
Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)--A behavioral framework for examining the triggers for behaviors, the functions of those behaviors, and a plan to modify/replace/extinguish those behaviors.
Articulation--referring to the quality , clarity, and understanding of a student’s speech
Aspergers--is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. It is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and differs from other disorders by relatively normal language and intelligence.
Assessment--the evaluation or estimation of the nature, quality, or ability of someone or something. Formative assessments occur along the way to ensure understanding throughout a unit of learning. Summative assessment is the type of assessment that occurs attend of a unit.
Assistive Technology--Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized , that is used to increase, maintain or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability (IDEA).
Attention--the ability to focus (attend) with eyes and/or ears for a period of time without losing the meaning of what is being said
Attention Deficit Disorder--Difficulty initiating, attending, and/or sustaining attention to task.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.
Auditory Processing--is a term used to describe what happens when your brain recognizes and interprets the sounds around you. Humans hear when energy that we recognize as sound travels through the ear and is changed into electrical information that can be interpreted by the brain.
Autism--a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three that adversely affects educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.
Autism Support Class (AS)--a type of classroom or placement designed to support the needs of students on the autism spectrum.
Automaticity--is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice. In education, this term usually refers to a student's ability to read sight words (vs. decoding them) while reading.
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